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A Step Beyond:
A Definitive Guide to Ultrarunning

Table of Contents

Foreword by Bernd Heinrich  xii
Introduction by Don Allison xvi
Chapter 1:  Training and Racing Advice
How Do You Do It? 3
A Beginning Ultrarunner‘s Guide to Running 50 Miles 6
Deriving Benefits from Mileage and Long Training Runs 15
Hill Running 22
Running Style 25
Listening to the Heart 28
Reaching a Peak 33
Tapering for Performance 36
Hydration for Warm Weather Ultrarunning 43
Training for the Western States 100 Mile  46
The Advantage of a Run/Walk Strategy for 24 Hour Runs 59
How to Walk While Running 63
The Lure of the Trail 67
Running on the Rocks 73
Staying the Course 79
Altitude Training for Improved Performance 85
The Feeling‘s Right, Gonna Run All Night 91
On the Edge: Avoiding Overtraining and Burnout 93
A Training Strategy for Back-of-the-Pack Ultrarunners 97
Pacing in a 100 Mile: A Nice Way to Spend the Night 99
Crewing: Ten Commandments For Those Who Sit and Wait  104
Cross Training and Fitness Equipment 106
Why Would Anyone Direct an Ultra? 115
Chapter 2:  Physiology
The Ultrarunner‘s Body 123
Eat, Drink, and Run Ultras:
         Basic Dietary Guides for Ultrarunners
Electrolytes and Fluid Replacement 130
Vitamins and Supplements: Do You Need Them? 135
Endocrine System Depletion 142
Immediate and Delayed Effects of a 100-Mile Trail Run 148
Ultrarunning and the Heart 154
Getting the Heart Back on Track 157
The Ultrarunner‘s Knee 160
Hamstring Injuries 165
A Different Approach 168
An Unexpected and Scary Case of Kidney Failure 180
Pulmonary Emboli: A Personal Struggle 185
Ozone and the Ultrarunner:
         It‘s a Serious Health Concern
Bloody Urine in Runners 191
The Agony of Da-Feet 194
Components of Blister Prevention 200
Now I Lay Me Down to Sleep 204
Chapter 3:  Making History 213
The History of a Wonderful Event:
         The 24-Hour Race
Pheidippides—Marathoner or Ultramarathoner? 226
Captain Barclay: Nineteenth
         Century Super Ultrarunner
The Pedestriennes—Female Ultra
         Stars of the 19th Century
The Accuracy of Our Forebears 240
One Mile Per Hour Isn‘t So Difficult—Or Is It? 245
Across America on Foot:
         The Bunion Derbies of 1928 and 1929
Britain‘s End-to-End: 
         The Best of Races, The Worst of Races
Tipton, England, October, 1975:
         The Greatest 100-Mile Ever?
Chapter 4:  Races and Places
Classic Races 275
The Classics 277
The Comrades Marathon: South Africa‘s Gem 280
”She‘s The One:“ Georgia Gustafson‘s Accidental
         Brush with Fame at the Comrades Marathon
How the Western States Was Won 287
The Spartathlon: A Greek History Lesson 295
Five Days in the Himalayas:
         It Doesn‘t Get Any Better
An Arctic Adventure
         (Or What I Did on My Winter Vacation)
Badwater: Inside the World‘s Longest,
         Hottest, Baddest Endurance Race
Across the Desert: The
         Marathon Des Sables
New York City: The Ultimate in Urban Ultrarunning 329
A Summer to Remember:
         2,144 Miles on the Appalachian Trail 
Run Across Vietnam: A Day of Heaven and Hell  338
America‘s 100-Mile Trail Races 344
Chapter 5:  Ultra People
Bios and Interviews 361
Arthur Newton: A Pioneer of Ultrarunning 363
Ted Corbitt: An Ultrarunning Pioneer 372
Ann Trason: Ultra Wonder Woman 381
Yiannis Kouros: Modern Day Greek Mythology 385
Masters of the 48-Hour Race:
        Sue Ellen Trapp and Sue Olsen
20 Years at Western States,
         20 Questions for Tim Twietmeyer
Helen Klein: Grand Slam Grandma 407
The Running Tribe: Tarahumara Indians 415
Bernd Heinrich: The Animal Kingdom,
         Evolution, and Running
Twenty-Something—The Younger Ultrarunner 429
Chapter 6:  Philosophy
The Philosophy of Ultrarunning: Why Do We Do It? 437
Rules for Being an Ultrarunner 439
Knowing When (and When Not) to Quit 441
Living With Humiliation 447
Running a 100-Mile?
         Leave Your Aggression at Home
Cheaters 452
The Back of the Packer: It‘s a Different Event 454
Psychological and Emotional Responses to Injury  457
24 Hours—A Run 461
Reflections on Ultrarunning and Religion 464
Ultrarunning‘s Place in the Sun 469
Chapter 7:  Humor
What‘s So Funny About Ultrarunning? 473
Living With an Ultrarunner: It‘s Not Always So Easy 475
Unlocking the Secrets of The
         World‘s Greatest Ultrarunner (TWGU)
From the South: The Bigger They Are . . .  481
So You Think You Are Slow? 484
A Handy Organic Training Aid for Winter Running 486
Ultrarunning Terms and Names 489
Waramaug: The Movie 492
Who Wants to be an Ultrarunner? 495
You Might Be An Ultrarunner If... 500
Appendix I
         Gear and Equipment for Ultrarunning
Appendix II
         Suppliers Directory
Appendix III
         A Historical Timeline of Ultrarunning
Appendix IV
         Additional Information on Ultrarunning 
Appendix V
         Major Ultra Races
Appendix VI
         Author Biographies
Appendix VII
Index                  535